THE GAUBU/S. H considerable substance. They are also the hereditary propri&»rc of several vil* * lages on the west of the Jamuna, chiefly in the pargana of rather affect large brick-built houses, two or more stories in heign a considerable area of ground, but so faultily constructed that an uncracked wall is a noticeable phenomenon. Without exception they are utterly ignorant and illiterate, and it is popularly believed that the mother of the race was a Chamar woman, who has influenced the character of her offspring more than the Brah- man father. The name is derived from aki, the great cserpent' Kaliya, Tvhom Krishna defeated \ and their first home is stated to have been the village of Sunrakh, which adjoins the Kali-inardan ghat at Briuda-ban. The Pimdes of the great temple of Baladeva are all Ahivasis, and it is matter for regret that the revenues of so wealthy a shrine should be at the absolute disposal of a com- munity so extremely unlikely ever to make a good use of them. The main divisions of Tlmkurs in Mathura are the Jadon and the Gauroa The former, however, are not recognized as equal in rank to the Judons of Raj- putana, though their prmicipal representative, the Raja of Awa,* is one of the wealthiest landed proprietors in the whole of Upper India. The origin of the latter name is obscure, but it implies impure descent and is merely the generic *Now that JaleBar, the Raja's residence, has been included in the Eta district, he can no longer be reckoned among the gentry of Mathura: but as part of his estate still lies here, it may be convenient to give, in the form of a note, a brief sketch of the family history. The pedigree begins only in the reign of Muhammad Shah (1720—1748 A. I).), when Th-ikur Chatnrbhuj, a zamindar of Nari in the Gbhata pargana, came and settled at Jalcsar, and was employed by tbe local governor in the professional capacity of a physician. His son, Bijay Sinh, for a short time also followed the vocation of his father, but was afterwards appointed toasmall military command. The Jadon zamindars of some adjacent villages, having become involved in pecuniary difficulties, were assisted by Chaturbhuj, now become a wealthy man, and his son, themselves also members of the Jadon clan. They thus acquired consider- able local influence, which was further extended by Bijay Sinn's eldest son, Bhakt Sinh, He was for a time in the service of Jawahir Sinh, the Maharaja of Bharat-pur, and also lent some support to Thakur Bahadur Sinh of Umargarh, from whom he received a grant of the village of Misa. A number of other villages, belonging to different Thakur clans, also passed into his hands; and this accession of revenue enabled him to enlist under his standard a troop of marauding Mewatis, with whose aid he established himself, according to the custom of the time, as an independent free-booting chief. Hnally he obtained a sajtad from the MahraUas authorizing him to build a fort at Awa. This was simply a garhi with a circuit of mud walls. The present formidable stronghold was bnilt by his successor, Hira Sinn. In the Mahratta •war the latter was able to render some good service to. the English ; and in 1838' it is saU that his son, Pitarabar Sinh, was recognised as Raja by the then Governor-General, Lord Auckland. He died in 1845, leaving no issue of his own save one daughter, who was married to a Rajput chief in the Gwaliar territory. His son by adoption, Raja Prithi Sinh, a descendant of Thakur Bijay Sinh, the second of the family, died in July, 1876, leaving an infant heir, the present Kaja, Chitra Pal Sinh, born 12th August, 1874; his mother being a member of the branch of the Nepal royal family residing at Banaras. The estate pays a Government revenue of Us. 3,67,515. The sanad conferring the title is not forthcoming, nor is it known when it was conferred. It is said to have beeo given by a Rana of Udaipns.